The Greek physician Hippocrates in the 5th century BC put forward the idea of differing the temperament of people based on the ratio of vital juices in the body. It is fluids that have a direct impact on a person’s behavior and his way of thinking and living. Liquid theory of behavioral reactions laid the foundation of the science of human temperament and was refined by the followers and students of Hippocrates.
I was interested in the question of how people's temperaments influence fate, after the elder sister’s divorce. Two people could not get along under the same roof because of the inconsistency of temperaments, which appeared in full force during the cohabitation. In order not to spoil your fate and the fate of future children, you need to thoroughly examine the issue of temperaments. Because it is not a mind-driven process, but a natural principle in every person.
Teaching on Temperament
Temperament is the biological basis, which is the basis for the formation of the individual as a social unit. In other words, it is a set of behavioral reactions caused by the peculiarities of organic processes inside the body. Temperament is not acquired in the process of human life, it is given from birth. A person, in the course of his life activity, knows himself as a person, gets acquainted with the peculiarities of his reactions to the surrounding reality, but does not control these reactions and does not create them.
Note! Temperament in translation from ancient Greek means correct measure and proportionality.
The ancient Greek scientist healer Hippocrates, the oath of which every physician utters after graduation from the institute, put a lot of effort into knowing the essence of man and his behavioral characteristics. In the course of numerous experiments and reflections, the scientist came to the conclusion that the reaction to what is happening is due to the influence of fluids inside the body.
The scientist counted among the vital juices:
- bile (black and yellow);
- phlegm (mucus).
For example, the blood warms the human body, is a source of heat. Reflux cools the body, yellow bile dries the internal environment, black bile is responsible for the moisture level of the internal environments of the body.
Thus, Hippocrates initiated the study of the essence of man and its features in direct connection with biological processes.
The followers and students of Hippocrates continued the development of the theory of temperaments: Claudius Gallen defined the typology of temperaments. Subsequently, the types of temperament by Hippocrates and Gallen were called humoral. Further the development of the theory was continued by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, he gave a precise description of the four human temperaments:
- sanguine person;
- phlegmatic person;
Kant also clarified that sanguine and melancholic reactions are caused by feelings and emotions, and choleric and phlegmatic reactions are generated by human activity. In accordance with this, choleric and phlegmatic are very active in their manifestations, and sanguine and melancholic - emotional.
Characteristics of human temperaments by Hippocrates:
- The choleric type of temperament is controlled by yellow bile.
- Sanguine has a large volume of blood.
- Melancholic is controlled by black bile.
- The phlegmatic body is filled with cold mucus.
Characteristics of temperaments according to Kant:
- Sanguine differs cheerfulness and carelessness.
- Melancholic shows anxiety and dark mood.
- Choleric quickly lights up and quickly cools to the subject of his interest.
- Phlegmatic shows coldness and indifference, different laziness.
Modern theories of temperament
The modern interpretation of the temperament doctrine differs only in the statement that every person has all kinds of temperament, but with a predominance of one of them. However, scientists are more likely to consider the dependence of human behavior on the type of figure than on the interaction of internal fluids.
A group of Western European scientists at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries advanced the theory of the relationship of temperament with the constitutional features of the body structure of an individual. For example, the German psychiatrist Kretschmer put forward the idea that mental diseases are associated with constitutional features of the structure of the body:
- Asthenics - a fragile angular constitution; the author of the theory proposes to call them leptosomatics.
- Pickwick - is a man of large stature, sometimes has a barrel-shaped figure. Differs stoop.
- Athletic - muscular type without a pronounced fat layer. It features a wide shoulder girdle with narrow hips.
- Dysplastic differs improper physique. For example, it is too big or small.
Kretschmer made conclusions from his observations of psycho-types that asthenics are prone to schizophrenia, and athletes to epilepsy.
Later, an American psychologist and scientist V. Sheldon identifies three somatypes, depending on the constitutional features of the body structure:
The endomorphic type is characterized by the presence of a large fat layer and excessive development of internal organs. These individuals look physically undeveloped and weak.
The mesomorphic type belongs to the athletic bodybuilding and is distinguished by a developed musculature instead of a fat layer. These individuals, as a rule, have good health, strong will and cheerfulness.
The ectomorphic type is characterized by the absence of fatty layer and muscles, as well as the unexpressed development of internal organs. These individuals are easily excitable, impressionable and vulnerable.
Sheldon argues that there is another, fourth type of temperament: mixed. However, according to his observations, this type is extremely rare.
Further, Sheldon proposed to combine the introversion and extraversional qualities of a person with his physique, as a result of which he identified 3 personality types:
Viscerotonics are characterized by a predominance of internal senses, somatototonics show their temperament in activity and action, cerebrotonics prefer analytics and thinking to action.
Despite the emphasis on somatic features in the theory of the essence of personality, the fluid idea of the mental manifestations of the individual remains in force. Therefore, the teaching of Hippocrates and his followers still remains fundamental in the theories about the essence of man and his mental characteristics.
Characteristics of temperament
Let us consider in detail 4 temperaments of a person.
It is one of the most prominent representatives of human nature, characterized by balance and healthy optimism. Sanguine personifies the best qualities of a person:
- healthy emotionality;
Sanguine men are leaders of groups, create a comfortable mental atmosphere, do not lose heart because of failures, are aimed at a better future. The disadvantage of a type is incontinence promises, however, this is often caused by a change in circumstances. According to the Hippocrates theory, this type of personality is the result of plethora.
Note! Sanguine persons easily adapt to the changed conditions.
Also sanguine characterizes a flexible mind, healthy mental activity, performance and interpersonal skills. However, they are characterized by inconsistency, so you should not rely completely on the word sanguine.
Can sanguine persons feel grief and worry? Yes, negative emotions are also characteristic of them, but they pass very quickly and intensively. That is, sanguine persons for the most part are in emotional equilibrium, and violent emotions (positive and negative) become a brief episode in their lives. These people simplify their lives as much as possible, they are able to level any distortions.
Note! Sanguine distinguishes expressive gestures and mobile facial expressions.
They are hardened materialists who stand firmly with both feet on the ground and are able to enjoy its abundance. They are not characterized by romantic impulses and contemplation, they do not know how to fantasize and soar in the clouds. If there are no material pleasures, the sanguine persons suffer. Especially do not tolerate a lack of funds. Perhaps the lack of finances sanguine experienced more than the representatives of other types of temperament.
If a temperamental person is a lively and mobile individual, then the lack of temperament or its lack is expressed to the extreme degree through melancholy. These people are very sensitive and vulnerable, any event can take them out of their emotional balance and upset. And if an unpleasant circumstance happens, then the melancholic person regards it as an intolerable evil. These people are prone to pessimism and despondency.
Note! Melancholic initially tuned to negative, it is characterized by reticence.
The merits of melancholic can be attributed to the creative beginning. They have an analytical mindset and are inclined to contemplation. Melancholic people are able to bring the job started to the end, unlike choleric and sanguine. They can be trusted.
The vulnerability and aggravated reaction to the surrounding reality is due to the fine organization of the nervous system. This quality has its positive beginning: among melancholic there are many outstanding musicians and artists, poets and composers.
You can identify melancholic by constant alertness, anxiety and anxiety. “It doesn't matter what happens” - this is about melancholic. Melancholic people manage to worry a lot about troubles that have not yet happened, which are in the plane of probable. Seeing the world in dark tones, getting upset about things that are unbeaten and winding themselves up in a negative experience are the distinguishing features of representatives of this type of temperament.
Note! Melancholic can be recognized by poor facial expressions, thoughtful mind, lack of gesticulation and low voice. Melancholic prefers solitude and dreams to a noisy society and fun.
Melancholic people do not lock themselves in and easily make contact, but for the sake of the opportunity to express their pessimistic point of view. They can go to the conflict and the dispute, from which they leave offended at all in the world. They like to feel unjustly offended and offended: there is something to complain about to a neighbor.
Among the positive qualities are organization and the ability to plan their activities. This is due to the desire to feel confident in the future and a safe future. But any little thing can lead to a state of panic and fear for their lives and even the fate of the whole country.
Despite the negative assessment of the phlegmatic nature of character, these people have many positive qualities. For example, they are always restrained in the expression of emotions, calm and unshakable. It is difficult for them to adapt to the changed circumstances and new living conditions, but phlegmatic people are distinguished by their resilience and can suffer any difficulties without special losses.
The phlegmatic was rewarded with negative qualities due to lethargy and low activity in unfamiliar surroundings, natural slowness and lack of initiative. Unlike melancholic, they do not panic and patiently endure any adversity.
Note! Phlegmatic low-communicative, able to briefly express their thoughts, speech is not accompanied by active facial expressions and gestures.
Among the positive qualities of phlegmatic can be noted non-conflict: these people avoid any stress and know how to smooth sharp corners. Just as melancholic, bring the job started to the end and do not change interests with the speed of light.
Phlegmatic persons are not inclined to hasty conclusions and making rash decisions. They need to carefully weigh the pros and cons in order to approve a deed or intention. They have a strong nervous system and "thick armor." Phlegmatic is very difficult to unbalance and make your enemy.
Note! Phlegmatic people consider spiritual values as the main values: philanthropy, unselfishness, kindness and tolerance. They always lend a helping hand in a difficult moment.
Despite the introversion of character, they love the company of old trusted friends. Phlegmatic cozy in a warm company of like-minded people: with them you can productively keep quiet about his. However, it is not correct to believe that the phlegmatic person will be indifferent to open insults and attacks. If you try hard, you can put him in a state of rabies. And then it will not be good for anybody: the phlegmatic person can turn into an elusive avenger, stubbornly pursuing his victim on his heels.
This type of temperament characterizes fervent, active, bold and unrestrained in the manifestations of human emotions. They always choose the position of leader, do not tolerate subordination, instantly make decisions and pick up information on the fly. They can not argue, they can not advise: choleric know everything better than others. They regard the dispute as a personal challenge, and advice as an encroachment on freedom of choice.
Note! Cholerics are fidgets, generators of productive ideas and engines of progress. They are distinguished by a loud voice, leadership habits, lively facial expressions and active gestures.
Impulsiveness and restlessness often lead choleric to scandals and conflicts. It is those who defend their point of view with their fists, ready to go to battle for the truth. Among them are many psychopaths who go into hysterics in their unbridledness. Goodwill and peacefulness - this is not about choleric.
Negligence can be attributed to the inability to complete what has been begun. Choleric quickly loses interest in any business and without regret, quits work without completion. They can not be trusted responsible orders.
Another bright feature of choleric persons is the desire to be the first, the main, special in everything. They are rebels, politicians, instigators of the crowd. No political action is complete without a choleric ringleader. Impetuous movements, swiftness, impulsiveness, excitement, quick speech and love for embellishing the truth - this is a typical choleric. They always attack first, as they are sure that this is the protection of their interests.
Choleric - dangerous enemies. They are obsessed with the idea of destroying their enemies not only morally, but also physically. It is better not to get in their way so as not to incur a sea of trouble. However, choleric people burn out as fast as they do. So after a while, their anger goes away completely, and they become safe.
Is it possible to re-educate yourself and smooth out the negative features of the innate temperament? It is impossible to completely get rid of the influence of inborn character traits, but working on controlling emotions is an entirely achievable goal. Self-education, a clear goal and the right environment can change a lot in a person.